The current national offline sports events have rematches. In many major events, the introduction of physical fitness tests has strongly promoted the transformation of the training concepts of athletes and coaches, and has also attracted the attention of many sports fans. To this end, the reporter interviewed senior experts in the industry on issues related to physical fitness training and physical fitness testing of high-level athletes. Experts believe that the current training direction for national team athletes to strengthen their physical stamina and make up for their shortcomings should be adhered to and practice exploration should be carried out continuously. Experts also pointed out that a scientific attitude should be taken to the specific problems in the test, and more in-depth and refined research and improvement should be carried out in practical exploration.
The athletic level of Chinese swimming has shown rapid development in recent years, but as a whole, it is still far from the world-class level. Judging from the results of the six Olympic swimming competitions since the 1996 Atlanta Olympics, the US team won a total of 82 gold medals, accounting for 41%, while the Chinese team won a total of 9 gold medals, accounting for only 4.5%. At the same time, by replaying the performances of domestic athletes in the swimming competition of the 2017 National Games to the 2016 Rio Olympics, we will find that we have 27 events and 36 people (groups) that can reach the top eight levels of the Olympic Games, but only 7 The item reached the level of the top three in the Olympic Games, which is more consistent with the Chinese team's only 1 gold, 2 silver and 3 bronze results in the Rio Olympics. This shows that a group of swimmers in our country have entered the ranks of international elite athletes, but it is difficult to further reach the top level in the world.
This phenomenon should arouse the attention and thinking of the Chinese swimming community. How to break this long-standing but difficult to break through the bottleneck, we should further improve the scientific level of swimming training, and use scientific methods to help this group is close to the physical limit of individual exercise For the training of athletes, it is necessary to seek new ideas and methods in training concepts and methods, and explore new training paths.
Physical fitness is the source of power for human movement, and it is also the most important factor that determines the level of exercise of each sport. From the perspective of the development of human motor ability, the development of physical fitness and skills is not synchronized. Generally speaking, training before the age of 16 is based on "skills". After the age of 16, physical fitness gradually becomes the main body of training. After the age of 20, the skills are already Basically formed, physical fitness still has a large room for development. Therefore, from the perspective of human development, one of the main contents of the training of elite adult athletes is still physical fitness, of which a considerable proportion is still basic physical fitness. Some people believe that the national team athletes should focus on special skills. The basic physical fitness seems to have been completed in the basic training phase. This is wrong. The basic physical fitness including maximum strength, aerobic endurance, speed and flexibility still follows the "rules for use" The most basic biological adaptation principle of “advance, disuse if not used” still needs to continue to strengthen training. If no special training is carried out, these abilities will fade. Of course, if the athlete does not meet the basic physical fitness for the specific needs at the beginning, more investment in this area should be increased. Therefore, many Olympic events, especially physical events, have special basic physical fitness test standards. Almost all outstanding athletes in the world have not stopped their basic physical training after entering the world level.
身体健康是人类运动的动力之源，也是决定各项运动水平的最重要因素。从人类运动能力的发展来看，身体素质和技能的发展是不同步的。一般来说，16岁之前的培训是基于“技能”的。 16岁以后，身体适应逐渐成为训练的主体。 20岁以后，技能已经基本形成，身体健康仍有很大的发展空间。因此，从人类发展的角度来看，成年精英运动员训练的主要内容之一仍然是身体素质，其中相当一部分仍然是基本身体素质。有人认为国家队的运动员应该专注于特殊技能。基本身体素质似乎已在基本训练阶段完成。错了包括最大力量，有氧耐力，速度和柔韧性在内的基本身体素质仍然遵循“使用规则”。最先进的生物适应性原则是“提前，不使用则废弃”，仍需要继续加强训练。如果不进行特殊训练，这些能力就会消失。当然，如果运动员在一开始就不满足基本的身体适应性，则应增加在这一领域的更多投资。因此，许多奥林匹克运动会，特别是体育比赛，都有特殊的基本体能测试标准。进入世界水平后，世界上几乎所有优秀运动员都没有停止其基本的体育锻炼。
Studies have shown that at the same distance or speed, compared with basic periodic sports such as kayaking, rowing, running and cycling, swimming consumes the most energy. Therefore, the project attaches great importance to physical training. In 2015, a survey conducted by the United States of 298 excellent swimming coaches showed that among the many contents of swimming training, physical training ranked second, among which pull-ups, squats, bench presses and vertical jumps were coaches. The testing indicators frequently used by the staff. The world-famous coach of the United States has always regarded basic physical fitness as an important part of training. He believes that swimmers’ special training in the water is unsupported and cannot bear weight, so they cannot maintain or improve the athlete’s maximum strength and rapid strength , Must use the method of land training to supplement. Similarly, the contemporary world's outstanding swimmers, such as Phelps, Kitajima Kosuke, and Ledkey also attach great importance to physical training on land.
研究表明，与基本的定期运动（如皮划艇，划船，跑步和骑自行车）相比，在相同的距离或速度下，游泳消耗的能量最多。因此，该项目非常重视体育锻炼。 2015年，美国对298位优秀的游泳教练进行了一项调查，结果显示，在众多游泳训练内容中，体育锻炼位居第二，其中引体向上，深蹲，卧推和垂直跳高是教练。工作人员经常使用的测试指标。美国举世闻名的教练一直认为基本身体素质是训练的重要组成部分。他认为，游泳者在水中的特殊训练得不到支持，不能承受体重，因此他们无法维持或提高运动员的最大力量和快速力量，必须使用陆地训练的方法来补充。同样，当代世界上杰出的游泳运动员，例如菲尔普斯（Phelps），北岛晃介（Kitajima Kosuke）和莱德基（Ledkey），也非常重视陆地上的体育锻炼。
Physical fitness test is definitely not a goal, but a lever to promote or lead the direction of training. We cannot use physical fitness test indicators as the main content of training. Instead, we should regard the abilities reflected by these indicators as the training objectives. Through targeted training, we can improve athletes’ various qualities such as strength, endurance, and speed. These test indicators are naturally It will happen naturally. Take Yu Hexin, a famous short-distance freestyle swimmer who took part in the physical fitness test a few days ago, as an example. Although his performance in the 3000-meter run was not ideal due to his injury affecting the training, in fact, he got full marks in the other 4 test items. . Similarly, Liu Xiang easily got full marks in the 30-meter run test related to the special features.
Of course, the standards for physical fitness testing should also be constantly improved and adjusted, and scientific and practical standards including swimming events should be formed as soon as possible. Judging from the current standards, there are some problems with individual indicators and standards, some need to be appropriately lowered, and some may need to be improved. Take Yu Hexin as an example. As an explosive short-distance swimmer, Yu Hexin easily got full marks in the vertical jump and 30-meter tests. However, comparing with the international standards, it can be seen that the standard for vertical jump in this test is not high enough, which results in players who are not at the same level as him can get full marks, so that Yu Hexin’s ability advantage does not really appear. come out.
At present, my country's competitive sports is at a critical moment in preparing for the Tokyo Olympics and the Beijing Winter Olympics. The training of the national team has received extensive attention and support. We must take a scientific and pragmatic attitude, actively research and explore, and further promote the science of physical training.化 level. (Reproduced from the 01 edition of China Sports Daily on September 29)
当前，我国的竞技体育正处于筹备东京奥运会和北京冬季奥运会的关键时刻。国家队的训练受到了广泛的关注和支持。要采取科学务实的态度，积极研究探索，进一步提高体育科学化水平。 （摘自9月29日《中国体育日报》 01版）